The Population explosion is one of our major problems. India is in the grip of population explosion. it is very badly affecting all our development activities. The prolonged high birth rate and considerable decline in mortality rate have made India an over populated country.The problem is becoming more and more alarming with passage of time. In term of population India is second largest country after China. The infant mortality rate has come down to 80 from 126 per thousand on the other hand life expectancy has considerably increased. This phenomenon has resulted in the rapid growth of the population of younger people. Similarly there are 35% of total population and more men and women over sixty years of age. Consequently, the clash of ideas and interests between the young and the old has become a common thing.
There are about 15 million births every year in India. With this high fertility and decline in mortality our population will cross the population of China in year to come.The enormity of the problem has been realized but commensurate steps towards population control have not been taken by government so far. The measures taken till date to address the colossal problem are really not adequate at all. Meaningful population control program should take account of such socio-economic factors as age of marriage, female literacy, rate of mortality, status of women and poverty because they have strong bearing on our population explosion.
The growth of our population at the rate near to 2% is really alarming high. Every minutes we have 30-35 additional mouths to feed. if this baby boom continues soon our country will be most populated country in the word and China will be relegated to the second position. This baby boom reduces the quality and standard of living and increase the problems of unemployment, housing, health family welfare, education and many such others. The problem becomes all the more worse because of illiteracy ignorance, superstitions, religious and communal prejudices and tropical climate of the country. it is because of this climate that there is so much fertility among women. Here a girl of 15-16 years of age is mature enough to deliver a child, if married. Most of the people in villages and slums in the cities are totally ignorant of the evil consequence of a large and unplanned family. Because of lack of proper awareness and age old dead traditions coupled with superstitions, he people in villages believe in divine dispensation in the moulding of their families and refuse to plan them. Small farmers, agricultural labourers etc have large and unplanned families because of the economic value of the children. The more the children, the more hand to earn for the family.
To have the desired aims and objects in regard to population control and family planning the status of the women should be improved to the extend that they are well educated and informed and economically self dependent, so that they have control over fertility. It is a fact that female literacy has a strong co relation with higher age marriage and lower birth rate. Birth rate can be brought down by 12 per thousand if the mean age of marriage is raised to 20 among women. it has been observed that seven years of schooling leads three and half year delay in marriage and also lower infant mortality. late marriage should be encourage and child marriage should be dealt with strictly. Marriage registration should be made compulsory and no marriage should be considered legal without it. Moreover, there should be uniform civil code as far as marriage and divorces are concerned, and no discrimination should be exercised on the basis of religion, cast creed etc. two children norm should be adopted and there should not be any violation of it.
Persuasive methods should be use to limit a family to two children, but need be coercive methods may also be used . Unless population is controlled neither poverty can be eliminated nor the living standard be improved. More funds should be allotted for family planning, mother and child care and birth control programs under the five years plans. More and more sterilization facilities coupled with increased monetary incentives should be provided in villages and towns. Couples accepting family planning with one or two daughters should be provided proper insurance cover ensuring their welfare in the old age. Security and protection in old age should be ensured to such couples by the government and the society. A strong system of incentives and disincentives should be adopted to check this explosion in our country.